Reports & Studies

Invitation to ABO Members to post Abstracts of Peer Reviewed publications

As a service to all our members, we invite you to post your peer-reviewed journal articles (authors, title, citation, abstract, author affiliations) to the ABO website.  All articles published in 2012 and after are eligible for posting.  The articles should be relevant to and supportive of the goals of the ABO (see website). The posting should be submitted to Barb Scheevel ( )  subject line: attn: peer review committee), copies to the ABO Peer Review committee, Drs. Keith Cooksey and John Benemann (, by either the senior or corresponding author of the paper. The peer review committee will decide if the submission meets the standards of interest and relevance to the ABO peer reviewed journal publication, and ABO membership. The submitting author, is responsible for obtaining permission of the other authors and any copyright holders. The submissions, if accepted, will be automatically posted at Center/References/Reports and Studies.


Algae-related Patent Awarded

Title: Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems.
Patent awarded: August 4, 2015
Patent number: 909685
Inventors: Robert Gardner, Brent Peyton and Keith E. Cooksey
Focus of patent: Timing of the bicarbonate addition to the algal culture makes a great difference to the lipid yield.


Announcement of a new journal dealing with all aspects of algae.
The Federation of European Phycology Societies has announced the impending publication of their new Journal called “Perspectives in Phycology” It differs from most other research journals in that it publishes only reviews and similar information. It will cover all aspects of phycology including algal biotechnology and applied phycology. Details can be found at:



Cellular Cycling, Carbon Utilization, and Photosynthetic Oxygen Production during Bicarbonate-Induced Triacylglycerol Accumulation in a Scenedesmus sp.

Energies 20136(11), 6060-6076; doi:10.3390/en6116060

Robert D. Gardner, Egan J. Lohman, Keith E. Cooksey, Robin Gerlach and Brent M. Peyton,
Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA and Environmental Biotechnology Consultants, Manhattan, MT 59741, USA.

Note – This issue of the journal “Energies” is devoted to algal biofuels and the paper above is a free access, solicited contribution.


The Algae Industry Project Book:

ABO’s Algae Industry Project Book is a regularly updated resource that includes member companies with some of the most advanced algae-related projects in the United States. This is an excellent resource for those that need to quickly get up to speed on today’s algae industry. The book includes brief company descriptions and photos that demonstrate the impressive progress of the  industry, as well as the products, jobs and other benefits being created.

Download a PDF of the the Algae Industry Project Book and take a look!

The Algae Industry Map:

The algae opportunity exists from coast-to-coast and around the globe. The Algae Biomass Organization’s Algae Industry Map documents ABO members, algae production projects, research and other activities that are making algae a new source of renewable fuels and many other products.

Click here to view the full map.


Bioresource Technology:

The manuscript was published in Bioresource Technology, here is a link to the online publication.

Citation: Xiaowei Liu, Benjamin Saydah, Pragnya Eranki, Lisa M. Colosi, B. Greg Mitchell, James Rhodes, Andres F. Clarens, “Pilot-scale data provide enhanced estimates of the life cycle energy and emissions profile of algae biofuels produced via hydrothermal liquefaction”, Bioresource Technology, Available online 27 August 2013, ISSN 0960-8524


A UK Roadmap for Algal Technologies:

This document was supplied by Dr. Michele Stanley who is at the Scottish Association for Marine Science in Oban, Scotland. The introduction was adapted by ABO from the Executive Summary of the document.


Algae, as we all know, have attracted considerable interest globally as a potential feedstock for a bio-based economy. The industrial and research communities in the UK have much to offer in this space. UK companies and academics have laid the foundations for several now globally-used algal biotechnology and engineering advances, and as an island nation the UK has a strong history in macroalgal commercial activities.

The Roadmap was commissioned by the UK Natural Environmental Research Council Algal Bioenergy Special Interest Group and complements the UK Strategic Research Agenda for 2012. Being mindful of environmental implications, it focuses on the commercialization potential of algae-related products, processes and services for the UK,

The report signposts the strengths of the UK science base, gives a snapshot of UK and global algal industries and presents an overview of trends and opportunities for algal – derived products and services. It assesses the UK’s potential for profiting from international markets and highlights actions necessary for the UK to compete in the global marketplace. Seven sectors are identified as being of particular relevance and value to the UK.

The roadmap aims were to highlight which algal products processes and services are on the market , close to deployment, are under development, or need considerably more development. Those which have the highest potential for the UK are identified. The timeliness, economics and environmental sustainability of these algal products or services are identified. The report deals with many of these from both micro-and macroalgale. It is not focused on biofuels.

The full report has 76 pages and is multi-authored.

PDF file: here




Physiological and Molecular Analysis of Carbon Source Supplementation and pH Stress Induced Lipid Accumulation in the Marine Diatom 

Phaeodactylum tricornutum
March 2013
Department of Microbiology, Montana State University, Bozeman
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman
Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman
Department of Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman

Renewable Diesel from Algal Lipids: An Integrated Baseline for Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential for a Harmonized Model
June 2012
Argonne National Laboratory
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

Resource Constraints and Microalgae Biomass Production
November 2011
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

Water Resources Research: National Microalgae Biofuel Production Potential and Resource Demand
April 2011
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)


Initial Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified (GM) Microalgae for Commodity-scale Biofuel Cultivation: ( “Algal Research” Journal)

November 2012 –

William J. Henley
R. Wayne Litaker
Lucie Novoveská
Clifford S. Duke
Hector D. Quemada
Richard T.Sayre

Genetic modification (GM) of microalgae to improve commercial production of biofuels is underway. Inevitable governmental regulations will likely address environmental, economic and human health impacts. Proactive addressing of such regulatory protection goals should begin now, during early development of this new, potentially large and transformative industry. We present strategies for ecological risk assessment of GM algae for commercial mass cultivation assuming that escape of GM algae into the environment is unavoidable. We consider the potential ecological, economic and health impacts of GM algae that persist in and alter natural ecosystems. Horizontal gene transfer with native organisms is of particular concern for certain traits, especially when cultivating GM cyanobacteria. In general, we predict that most target GM algal traits are unlikely to confer a selective advantage in nature, and thus would rapidly diminish, resulting in low but nonzero ecological risk. Genetic and mechanical containment, plus conditional matching of GM algal traits to unnatural cultivation conditions, would further reduce risk. These hypothetical predictions must be verified through rigorous ongoing monitoring and mesocosm experiments to minimize risk and foster public and regulatory acceptance.

Comment: We hope this will inspire much more discussion and research – it is clearly only the opening round, Bill Henley.

Techno-economic analysis of autotrophic microalgae for fuel production:
Ryan Davis, Andy Aden, Philip T. Pienkos, NREL,
Applied Energy, 88: (10) 3524-3531 ( 2011)

Near-term economics for autotrophic microalgal biofuel pathways are examined. Fuel costs = $9.84/gal (open pond production) and $20.53/gal (PBR production) were found. Economic viability of algal biofuels has significant potential for future improvement. Maximizing algal lipid content will be the primary means to reduce production cost. It is important to consider resources such as water and carbon balances for scale-up.


A Comprehensive GC–MS Sub-Microscale Assay for Fatty Acids and its Applications:
Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society
or J Am Oil Chem Soc, DOI 10.1007/s11746-011-1799-7
Fatty acid analysis is essential to a broad range of applications including those associated with the nascent algal biofuel and algal bioproduct industries. Current fatty acid profiling methods require lengthy, sequential extraction and transesterification steps necessitating significant quantities of analyte. We report the development of a rapid, microscale, single-step, in situ protocol for GC–MS lipid analysis that requires only 250 microg. dry mass per sample( about 2.5 mg wet weight). Broad applications of this technique are profiling the fatty acids of several algal species. When combined with fluorescence techniques utilizing the BODIPY dye family and flow cytometry, this micro-assay serves as a powerful tool for analyzing fatty acids in laboratory and field collected samples and for high-throughput screening. Additionally, the high sensitivity of the technique allows for population analyses across a wide variety of taxa. The relevance of this work can be gathered from the ABO Technical Standards Committee site on this web page under “policy Center”.


Sustainable Aviation Fuels Road Map: Data assumptions and modelling, May 2011 (pdf download)
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)


National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap (pdf download)
United States Department of Energy, Biomass Program


A Look Back at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Aquatic Species Program: Biodiesel from Algae (pdf download)
National Renewable Energy Laboratory


Regulation of the initial events in microalgal triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis: hypotheses
Keith E. Cooksey. on line at:Journal of Applied Phycology DOI 10.1007/s10811-014-0461-9

The paper reviews possible allosteric regulatory points in TAG accumulation.